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Clinical Studies

African Mango
Study #1

"These dietary fibers work by delaying gastric emptying and thus reducing the intestinal sugar absorption rate. This reduced rate improves the sensitivity of the tissues to insulin, resulting in increased glucose uptake. Adamson continued his studies with Omoruyi (1994) to try to work out how gabonensis alters the lipid metabolism of diabetics. Adamson and his workers had previously found that the blood glucose and lipid levels of type II diabetic patients could be improve..." [ Lesley Ainge and Nick Brown, Oxford Forestry Institute (2001), at carpe.umd.edu/resources/Documents/report-aingebrown2001.pdf ]

Study #2

"Sounds like a magic bullet to me! I tried it myself, and low and behold, in the first month of taking it (only once per day, mind you, instead of the recommended twice daily), I lost 7 pounds without making any changes in my usual healthy diet and exercise routine! I began recommending it to my patients who needed to lose weight, especially..." [Tanya Edwards MD, The Dr. Oz Show (2011) at http://www.doctoroz.com/blog/tanya-edwards-md-med/irvingia-magic-pill.]

Raspberry Ketone
Study #1

"RK prevented the high-fat-diet-induced elevations in body weight and the weights of the liver and visceral adipose tissues (epididymal, retroperitoneal, and mesenteric). RK also decreased these weights and hepatic triacylglycerol content after they had been increased by a high-fat diet. RK significantly increased norepinephrineinduced lipolysis associated with the translocation of hormone-sensitive lipase from the cytosol to lipid droplets in rat epididymal fat cells. In conclusion, RK prevents and improves obesity and fatty liver. These effects appear to stem from the action of RK in altering the lipid metabolism, or more specifically, in increasing norepinephrineinduced lipolysis in white adipocytes." [Chie Morimoto et al., Anti-obese action of raspberry ketone, Life Sciences 77 (2005) 194–204.]

Açaí
Study #1

"The antioxidant capacities of commercial and non-commercial pulps and seeds of the Euterpe oleracea Mart., Arecaceae, (Açaí) palm were surveyed against peroxyl radicals, peroxynitrite and hydroxyl radicals. Analysis were carried out with the Total Oxidant Scavenging Capacity (TOSC) assay in a modified and automated version. The results were compared to several standard compounds as well as to a number of common European fruit and vegetable juices. Several antioxidants present in Açaí pulps and seeds were identified, quantified and their contribution to the overall antioxidant capacities..." [PD Dr. Friedhelm Marx, and Prof. Dr. Gabriele M. König. Optimisation of the Total Oxidant Scavenging Capacity Assay and Application on Euterpe Oleracea Mart. (Açaí) Pulps and Seeds, Angefertigt mit Genehmigung der Mathematisch- Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakult at der University at Bonn, Germany, 2004.]


Study #2

"Açaí, a member of the genus Euterpe , is indigenous to Central and South America and grows in the Amazon estuary as well as in swamps, upland regions, and floodplains. The Açaí palm is tall and slender, growing 15 to 30 m in height. The leaves are feather-like or pinnate in shape and grow up to 3 m in length. 4 The plant is multi-stemmed and produces 3 to 4 bunches of round fruits 1 to 1.5 cm in diameter, with each bunch of fruit weighing 3 to 6 kg. The fruits appear in green clusters when immature and ripen to a dark purple color. Each Açaí fruit contains a seed that accounts for nearly 90% of its weight and diameter. The seeds are covered with a fibrous layer..."

A broad view of Açaí uses, dosing, contraindications, adverse reactions, toxicology, botany, history, pharmacology, and chemistry. References 23 clinical studies and scholarly articles. [E. Brondizio et al. Acai: Clinical Overview, Organique, (2007) at organi www.organique.asia/Acai_Info/Acai%20-%20Clinical.pdf.]


Study #3

"High intake of fruits and vegetables was found to positively associate with lower chance of many diseases by epidemiological studies and clinical trials. Antioxidant capacity was believed to be one of the possible mechanisms, though others are also involved. Açaí, fruits of Euterpe oleraceae Martius, is consumed in a variety of beverages and food preparations in the native land in Brazil, Colombia, and Suriname and used medicinally as an antidiarrheal agent (1, 2). Recently, much attention has been paid to its antioxidant capacity..." [Alexander G. Schauss et al., Antioxidant Capacity and Other Bioactivities of the Freeze-Dried Amazonian Palm Berry, Euterpe oleraceae Mart./Açaí, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, (2006) at 10.1021/jf0609779.]

Study #4

"For the clinical trial, people were given Açaí pulp and Açaí juice containing half the concentration of anthocyanins as the pulp and each compared to the control foods: applesauce and a non-antioxidant beverage."

"Blood and urine samples at 12 and 24 hours after consumption showed significant increases in antioxidant activity in the blood after both the Açaí pulp and applesauce consumption, she said. Both Açaí pulp and Açaí juice showed significant absorption of antioxidant anthocyanins into the blood and antioxidant effects...”" [Texas A&M University-Agricultural Communications, Brazilian Açaí Berry Antioxidants Absorbed By Human Body, Research Shows, ScienceDaily, Oct. 2008, Web. 21 Jul. 2011.]

Maqui Berry
Study #1

"The average total anthocyanin content was 137.6 ± 0.4 mg/100 g of fresh fruit (211.9 ± 0.6 mg/100 g dry weight), which is similar to those concentrations found in other berries considered to be good sources of anthocyanins (Mazza and Miniati, 1993; Clifford, 2000). A prominent feature of the anthocyanin composition of Maqui is that its biosynthetic pathway is largely channelled towards the formation of polyglycosylated derivatives that are highly polar and water-soluble." [Escribano-Bailón M.T. et al., Anthocyanins in berries of Maqui [Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz], Phytochemical Analysis 2006 Jan-Feb;17(1):8-14.]


Study #2

"Antioxidant activities of MeOH extract were strongly correlated with total polyphenol content. Consistent with this finding, MeOH had the greatest ORAC and FRAP values as percentage of activity. These results show that these fruits could be useful as antioxidant, cardioprotective and nutraceutical sources." [Carlos L. Céspedes et al., Antioxidant and cardioprotective activities of phenolic extracts from fruits of Chilean blackberry Aristotelia chilensis (Elaeocarpaceae) Maqui, Food Chemistry Mar. 2008 Volume 107, Issue 2, 15, :820-829 .]


Study #3

"Antioxidant capacity, measured as oxygen radical scavenging capacity and expressed as Trolox equivalents, was higher in the berries of A. chilensis. Phenolic extracts inhibited lipid accumulation by 4.0-10.8% when adipocytes were treated at maturity and by 5.9-37.9% when treated throughout differentiation." [Maria Elisa Schreckinger et al., Antioxidant Capacity and in Vitro Inhibition of Adipogenesis and Inflammation by Phenolic Extracts of Vaccinium floribundum and Aristotelia chilensis, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Oct 2010 Vol 58 Issue 16: 8966-8976.]

Green Tea Extract

A Green Tea Extract High in Catechins Reduces Body Fat and Cardiovascular Risks in Humans:

Study #1

"Japanese women and men with visceral fat-type obesity were recruited for the trial. After a 2-week diet run-in period, a 12-week doubleblind parallel multicenter trial was performed, in which the subjects ingested green tea containing 583 mg of catechins (catechin group) or 96 mg of catechins (control group) per day. Randomization was stratified by gender and body mass index at each medical institution. The subjects were instructed to maintain their usual dietary intake and normal physical activity.
Results: Data were analyzed using per-protocol samples of 240 subjects (catechin group; n 123, control group; n 117). Decreases in body weight, body mass index, body fat ratio, body fat mass, waist circumference, hip circumference, visceral fat area, and subcutaneous fat area were found to be greater in the catechin group than in the control group." [Tomonori Nagao et al., A Green Tea Extract High in Catechins Reduces Body Fat and Cardiovascular Risks in Humans, OBESITY, Vol. 15 No. 6 June 2007: 1473-1483.]


Study #2

Anti-obesity actions of green tea: Possible involvements in modulation of the glucose uptake system and suppression of the adipogenesis-related transcription factors:

"It was confirmed that green tea reduced adipose tissue weight without any change in body weight, other tissue weights, and food and water intakes. Green tea also significantly reduced the plasma levels of cholesterols and free fatty acids. Certain catechins existed in the plasma at 0.24 μM under our experimental conditions, though most of them existed as conjugated forms. For mechanisms of the anti-obesity actions, green tea significantly reduced glucose uptake accompanied by a decrease in translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in adipose tissue..." [H. Ashida et al., Anti-obesity actions of green tea: Possible involvements in modulation of the glucose uptake system and suppression of the adipogenesis-related transcription factors, BioFactors, Volume 22, Issues 1-4 : 135-140, (2004).]


Study #3

Effects of Catechin Enriched Green Tea on Body Composition

"We observed a decrease in estimated intraabdominal fat (IAF) area of 5.6 cm2 in the GT3 group. In addition, we found decreases of 1.9 cm in waist circumference and 1.2 kg body weight in the GT3 group vs. C (P < 0.05). We also observed reductions in total body fat (GT2, 0.7 kg, P < 0.05) and body fat % (GT1, 0.6%, P < 0.05). We conclude that consumption of two servings of an extra high catechin GT leads to improvements in body composition and reduces abdominal fatness in moderately overweight Chinese subjects." [Hongqiang Wang et al., Effects of Catechin Enriched Green Tea on Body Composition, Obesity Vol. 18 :773-779 (2010).]


Study #4

Efficiency of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans

"This finding with the green tea extract is even more remarkable when compared with data indicating that caffeine ingestion alone, even at doses as high as 1000 mg/d, had no significant effect on the RQ during the diurnal or nocturnal period (19). Third, stimulation of thermogenesis and fat oxidation by the green tea extract was not accompanied by an increase in heart rate. In this respect, the green tea extract is distinct from sympathomimetic drugs, whose use as antiobesity thermogenic agents is limited by their adverse cardiovascular effects..." [Abdul G. Dulloo et al., Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70:1040–5 (1999).]


Study #5

Green Tea and Weight Loss

"Research on green tea and its components shows an impact on obesity and weight gain in both laboratory animals and human subjects. Green tea has an impact on food intake, body weight, and body fat, and cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose levels. With the high rates of overweight and obesity seen in the US, green tea could prove to be a valuable natural treatment option." [H. Roy PhD, Green Tea and Weight Loss, Pennington Nutrition Series Vol. 9 (2007), at pbrc.edu/division-of-education /pdf/pns/PNS_Green_Tea.pdf.]


Green Tea Catechin Consumption Enhances Exercise-Induced Abdominal Fat Loss in Overweight and Obese Adults

"The catechin beverage employed was well tolerated. The frequencies of adverse events overall and for the major body systems, including abnormal laboratory values, were similar for participants in the catechin and control beverage groups. In summary, the findings of this study suggest that consumption of a beverage containing green tea catechins (625 mg/d) may enhance exercise-induced loss of abdominal fat and improve circulating FFA and TG levels." [Kevin C. Maki et al., Green Tea Catechin Consumption Enhances Exercise-Induced Abdominal Fat Loss in Overweight and Obese Adults, The Journal of Nutrition and Disease: 264-270 (2009).]


Study #6

Green tea catechins linked to weight loss: Study

"At the end of the study period, people in the catechin group were found to have lost more body weight compared to the control group (P = 0.079). There were no significant differences between the two groups in changes in waist circumference or fat mass. However, both total abdominal fat area (P = 0.013) and abdominal subcutaneous fat area (P = 0.019) had decreased more in the catechin group." [Lorraine Heller, Green tea catechins linked to weight loss: Study, at http://www.nutraingredients. com/Research/Green-tea-catechins-linked-to-weight-loss-Study.]

Caffeine
Study #1

Caffeine and coffee: their influence on metabolic rate and substrate utilization in normal weight and obese individuals

"Thus in conclusion it would seem that the consumption of caffeine or coffee, in reasonable quantities, would be a supplementary advantage to those following a weight reducing regime. However, if our short-term results are extrapolated, the effect of caffeine on normal, slightly overweight individuals would be a loss of weight due to an increased energy expenditure associated with a change in body composition, i.e., a decrease in fat stores, whereas the obese would lose body energy due to an increased metabolic rate with less mobilization and utilization of their fat stores." [K. J. Acheson PhD, Caffeine and coffee: their influence on metabolic rate and substrate utilization in normal weight and obese individuals, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (1980), 33:989-997.]


Study #2

Caffeine: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of its thermogenic, metabolic, and cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers.

"In three studies caffeine was reported to stimulate energy expenditure and lipolysis in humans (5-7). Although Acheson et al (5) found that a cup of coffee (4 mg caffeine/kg body wt) consumed with a meal produced a significantly greater thermic response than that which followed the intake of the same meal with a cup of decaffeinated coffee, this difference can be almost totally accounted for by the thermic effect of the caffeine. Another study also found an increased energy expenditure by caffeinated coffee (100 mg caffeine) compared with decaffeinated coffee (6 mg) (6). The third study found a reduced thermogenic response to caffeine (4 mg/kg ideal body wt) in obese and postobese patients compared with lean control subjects (7)." [Arne Astrup et al., Caffeine: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of its thermogenic, metabolic, and cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (l990), 51:759]


Study #3

Changes in caffeine intake and long-term weight change in men and women

"Caffeine alone has several important metabolic effects. Caffeine is an adenosine-receptor antagonist (32), and all tissues with adenosine receptors can be affected by caffeine exposure. Spriet et al (33) reported that caffeine stimulates fat utilization in muscle tissue during exercise. In addition, Astrup et al (3) reported a dose-dependent increase in basal energy expenditure with caffeine intake in healthy subjects who had moderate habitual caffeine consumption." [Esther Lopez-Garcia et al., Changes in caffeine intake and long-term weight change in men and women, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2006), 83:674–80.]

Probiotic Blend
Study #1

An Experimental Study and a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Antisecretory Activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus Strain LB Against Nonrotavirus Diarrhea.

"We have shown experimentally that L acidophilus LB culture or heat-killed L acidophilus LB bacteria plus spent culture medium were able to induce dosage-dependent blockade of the C1845-induced increase in the number of fluid domes in cultured, human intestinal Caco-2/TC7 cells." [Vanessa Lie´vin-Le Moal et al., An Experimental Study and a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Antisecretory Activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus Strain LB Against Nonrotavirus Diarrhea, Pediatrics, October 2007, 120(4):e795-e804.]


Study #2

Lactobacillus acidophilus Strain of Human Gastrointestinal Microbiota Origin Elicits Killing of Enterovirulent Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium by Triggering Lethal Bacterial Membrane Damage

"It is tempting to suggest that some strains of Lactobacillus that inhabit the intestinal microbiota may discharge an antimicrobial substance(s) into ecological niches within the intestine and thus also contribute to the first line of the chemical defense against enteric pathogens." [Marie-He´le`ne Coconnier-Polter et al., A Lactobacillus acidophilus Strain of Human Gastrointestinal Microbiota Origin Elicits Killing of Enterovirulent Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium by Triggering Lethal Bacterial Membrane Damage, Environmental Microbiology, Oct. 2005, 71(10):6115–6120.]


Study #3

The Front Line of Enteric Host Defense against Unwelcome Intrusion of Harmful Microorganisms: Mucins, Antimicrobial Peptides, and Microbiota

"The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in normal gut function and in maintaining host health. All the components of the gastrointestinal ecosystem seem to be necessary for the gut to develop its specific intestinal functions. . ."
"It has been reported that Lactobacillus inhibited the internalization of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium within human intestinal cells, and this effect had been attributed to a secreted molecule(s) that could affect the virulence factors involved in cell entry and/or block the host cell signal transduction necessary for bacterial internalization." [Vanessa Lie´vin-Le Moal and Alain L. Servin, The Front Line of Enteric Host Defense against Unwelcome Intrusion of Harmful Microorganisms: Mucins, Antimicrobial Peptides, and Microbiota, Clinical Microbiology Reviews, April 2006, 19(2):315–337.]

Caralluma fimbriata
Study #1

Effect of Caralluma Fimbriata extract on appetite, food intake and anthropometry in adult Indian men and women

"Caralluma fimbriata is an edible cactus, used by tribal Indians to suppress hunger and enhance endurance. The effect of Caralluma extract was assessed in overweight individuals by a placebo controlled randomized trial. Fifty adult men and women (25–60 years) with a body mass index (BMI) greater than 25 kg/m2 were randomly assigned into a placebo or experimental group; the latter received 1 g of Caralluma extract per day for 60 days. All subjects were given standard advice regarding a weight reducing diet and physical activity. At the end of 30 and 60 days of intervention, blood glucose and lipids, anthropometric measurements, dietary intake and assessment of appetite was performed. Waist circumference and hunger levels over the observation period showed a significant decline in the experimental group when compared to the placebo group. While there was a trend towards a greater decrease in body weight, body mass index, hip circumference, body fat and energy intake between assessment time points in the experimental group, these were not significantly different between experimental and placebo groups. Caralluma extract appears to suppress appetite, and reduce waist circumference when compared to placebo over a 2 month period." [Rebecca Kuriyan et al., Effect of Caralluma Fimbriata extract on appetite, food intake and anthropometry in adult Indian men and women, Appetite 48 (2007) 338–344.]


Study #2

Caralluma fimbriata in the Treatment of Obesity

"This study consisted of 26 overweight patients, 19 on the active compound, Caralluma fimbriata, and 7 on placebo, who were followed for four weeks. Caralluma fimbriata has been used in Indian folklore medicine for centuries as an appetite suppressant that leads to long-term weight loss. The substance is well known in Ayurvedic medicine. It has shown a long safety record with little, if any, side effects. The substance showed a statistically significant reduction in bodyweight and was well tolerated." [Ronald M. Lawrence and Suneeta Choudhary, Caralluma fimbriata in the Treatment of Obesity, in Proceedings of the 12th Annual World Congress of Anti-Aging Medicine, Las Vegas, Nev, USA, 2004.]


Study #3

Recent update in management of obesity and Overweight Patients: Standardized update of Caralluma fimbriata safe and effective therapy

"The complex process of appetite is controlled by several neural, humoral and psychological factors, and strategies that suppress appetite are likely to be useful in weight loss and control. Appetite suppressant medications, while effective, often have side effects. The Standardized Extract of Caralluma Fimbriata, an edible plant used for centuries in India as a famine food and appetite suppressant, is approved in India, Australia and the USA as a safe and effective option for management of obesity and overweight patients." [Bansi Saboo MD et al., Recent update in management of obesity and Overweight Patients: Standardized update of Caralluma fimbriata safe and effective therapy, International Journal of Clinical Cases and Investigations 2011, Volume 2 (Issue1), 5:9.]


Study #4

Antiobesogenic and Antiatherosclerotic Properties of Caralluma fimbriata Extract

"The antiobesogenic effects of CFE were evaluated by monitoring changes in feed intake, body weight, serumlipid and hormonal (leptin) profiles, fat pads, and liver weight. Antiatherosclerotic effects were measured by histology. CFE induced significant and dose-dependent inhibition of food intake, with dose-related prevention of gains in body weight, liver weight, and fat pad mass. Alterations in serum lipid profiles associated with weight gain were similarly inhibited, as were the typical increases in serum leptin levels. These data substantiate CFE's reported anorexigenic effects. CFE treatment also conferred protection against atherogenesis. We conclude that CFE possesses antiobesogenic and antiatherosclerotic properties." [Soundararajan Kamalakkannan et al., Antiobesogenic and Antiatherosclerotic Properties of Caralluma fimbriata Extract, Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism Volume 2010:1-6.]


Study #5

Caralluma fimbriata: A new dietary supplement in weight management strategies

"A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial on Caralluma fimbriata extract was done on 50 human subjects. This study consisted of 50 obese patients, 25 on the active compound and 25 on placebo. The trial lasted for eight weeks. Caralluma fimbriata is an edible succulent cactus, that is native to India and well known amongst native Indian populations for its appetite suppressant properties- Subjects were tested for changes in key indicators of weight-loss, including anthropometry , body fat composition, BMI, net weight and systemic functions. The following are the key observations made in this trial: Statistically significant reductions were recorded in all key indicators of weight-loss 1 Caralluma fimbriata extract was well tolerated I Caralluma fimbriata extract showed minimal adverse effects which were gastrointestinal and transient in nature." [Gencor Pacific, Caralluma fimbriata: A new dietary supplement in weight management strategies, at http://www.livestrong.com/article/189005-what-is-caralluma/, July 11, 2011.]

Chromium picolinate
Study #1

Effects of Chromium Picolinate on Food Intake and Satiety

"Results: Study 1 demonstrated that CrPic, as compared to placebo, reduced food intake (P < 0.0001), hunger levels (P < 0.05), and fat cravings (P < 0.0001) and tended to decrease body weight (P=0.08). In study 2, intraperitoneal administration resulted in a subtle decrease in food intake at only the highest dose (P = 0.03). However, when administered centrally, CrPic dose-dependently decreased food intake (P < 0.05). Conclusions: These data suggest CrPic has a role in food intake regulation, which may be mediated by a direct effect on the brain." [Stephen D Anton PhD et al., Effects of Chromium Picolinate on Food Intake and Satiety, Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics (2008) Volume 10, Number 5:405-412.]


Study #2

Effects of Chromium Picolinate Supplementation on Body Composition: A Randomized, Double-Masked, Placebo-Controlled Study

"These data suggest that supplementation with CrP can lead to significant improvements in body composition when a BCI is used as the outcome criterion that represents a sum of the net gains in nonfat mass added to the sum of the net losses of body fat." [Gilbert R Kaats et al., Effects of Chromium Picolinate Supplementation on Body Composition: A Randomized, Double-Masked, Placebo-Controlled Study, Current Therapeutic Research (October 1996) 57(10):747-756.]


Study #3

A double-blind, placebo-controlled, exploratory trial of chromium picolinate in atypical depression: effect on carbohydrate craving

"In a population of adults with atypical depression, most of whom were overweight or obese, CrPic produced improvement on the following HAM-D-29 items: appetite increase, increased eating, carbohydrate craving, and diurnal variation of feelings. In a subpopulation of patients with high carbohydrate craving, overall HAM-D-29 scores improved significantly in patients treated with CrPic compared with placebo. The results of this study suggest that the main effect of chromium was on carbohydrate craving and appetite regulation..." [JP Docherty et al., A double-blind, placebo-controlled, exploratory trial of chromium picolinate in atypical depression: effect on carbohydrate craving, Journal of Psychiatric Practice (September 2005), 11(5):302-14.]

Citrus aurantium
Study #1

Citrus aurantium as a Thermogenic, Weight-Reduction Replacement for Ephedra: An Overview

"Citrus aurantium appears to be a possible thermogenic substitute for ephedra based upon two studies showing enhanced weight loss compared to control (Colker et al., 1999; Jones, 2001) and three studies reporting increased metabolic rates with its use (Colker et al., 1999; Pathak and Gougeon, 1999; Hedrei and Gougeon, 1997). More studies and widespread use of this natural product will reveal the veracity of the preceding statement as well as the relative safety of Citrus aurantium compared to ephedra. In addition to thermogenesis, this agent might work also via some appetite suppression like ephedra and via its effects on the insulin system. Furthermore, agents that overcome insulin resistance may also be beneficial in increasing metabolism and helping with fat loss in obese subjects without adverse side effects..." [Harry G. Preuss et al., Citrus aurantium as a Thermogenic, Weight-Reduction Replacement for Ephedra: An Overview, Journal of Medicine (2002) 33(1-4):247-264.]


Study #2

Potential Applications for Alternative Medicine to Treat Obesity

"Synephrine alkaloids reputed to cause weight loss can be derived from Citrus aurantium, the sour orange. It is unclear which of several alkaloids from the plant actually contribute to weight loss. Although three small trials revealed such alkaloids can increase systolic blood pressure and heart rate, others showed no effect. Investigations of weight loss properties, not all controlled, have been conducted in small numbers of younger subjects. In four of these investigations weight loss ranged from 2.05 to 3.1 kg..." [E. Paul Cherniack MD, Potential Applications for Alternative Medicine to Treat Obesity in an Aging Population, Alternative Medicine Review (2008) 13(1):34-42.]

Vitamin-C
Study #1

Marginal vitamin C status is associated with reduced fat oxidation during sub-maximal exercise in young adults

"Low vitamin C status may partially explain the inverse relationship between vitamin C status and adiposity and why some individuals are unsuccessful in their weight loss attempts. . . . These preliminary results show that low vitamin C status may reduce fat oxidation during submaximal exercise and that reduced fat oxidation during exercise was related to fatigue. It is possible that increased fatigue and less reliance on fat as a fuel during activity may influence eventual weight gain. Thus, in addition to emphasizing calorie control and physical activity, attention to specific diet components such as vitamin C may be necessary for effective weight management." [Carol S. Johnston et al, Marginal vitamin C status is associated with reduced fat oxidation during submaximal exercise in young adults, Nutrition & Metabolism (2006) 3:35]


Guarana
Study #1

Guaraná's Journey from Regional Tonic to Aphrodisiac and Global Energy Drink

"Guarana´ (Paullinia cupana H.B.K., Sapindaceae) is a rainforest vine that was domesticated in the Amazon for its caffeine-rich fruits. Guarana´ has long been used as a tonic and to treat various disorders in Brazil and abroad and became a national soda in Brazil about a century ago. In the last two decades or so, guarana´ has emerged as a key ingredient in various 'sports' and energy drinks as well as concoctions that allegedly boost one's libido. For some time, guarana´'s high caffeine content was thought to be a detriment because of health concerns about excessive intake of caffeine-rich drinks. But it is precisely this quality, and the fact that it has a mysterious name and comes from an exotic land, that has propelled guarana´ into a global beverage. . . . Guarana´ is known to help stave off hunger and it is used by people trying to lose weight." [Nigel Smith1 and André Luiz Atroch, Guaraná's Journey from Regional Tonic to Aphrodisiac and Global Energy Drink, Evidence Based Complementary Alternative Medicine (2010) Sep;7(3):279-82.]


Study #2

Efficacy of 12 weeks supplementation of a botanical extract-based weight loss formula on body weight, body composition and blood chemistry in healthy, overweight subjects--a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial

"A significant change of the Body Composition Improvement Index (BCI) was observed in the active extract group compared to placebo (p = 0.012). Weight, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio was not statistically different between groups. Body fat loss was greater in active group (p = 0.011) compared to placebo. A weight loss parameter corrected for exercise was introduced and found to be higher in active group (p = 0.046) than in placebo, meaning that the formula was more efficacious, due to a concurrently performed exercise program--a recommended strategy for life style modification.
CONCLUSIONS: A significant change of the Body Composition Improvement Index and the decrease in body fat was statistically significant in active extract subjects compared to placebo." [T. Opala et al., Efficacy of 12 weeks supplementation of a botanical extract-based weight loss formula on body weight, body composition and blood chemistry in healthy, overweight subjects--a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, European Journal of Medical Research, August 2006, 11(8):343-350.]


Study #3

Weight loss and delayed gastric emptying following a South American herbal preparation [Mate-Guarana-Damiana] in overweight patients

"The herbal preparation, YGD capsules, significantly delayed gastric emptying, reduced the time to perceived gastric fullness and induced significant weight loss over 45 days in overweight patients treated in a primary health care context. Maintenance treatment given in an uncontrolled context resulted in no further weight loss, nor weight regain in the group as a whole. The herbal preparation is thus shown to be one that significantly modulates gastric emptying. Further clinical studies with dietetic monitoring of energy intake, dietary quality, satiety ratings, body weight and body composition are now indicated, and examination of the active principles contained in the three herbal components may prove rewarding." [T. Anderson and J. Fogh, Weight loss and delayed gastric emptying following a South American herbal preparation [Mate-Guarana-Damiana] in overweight patients, Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics June 2001, 14(3):243-50.]


Study #4

Improved cognitive performance and mental fatigue following a multi-vitamin and mineral supplement with added guaraná

" This research supports previous findings demonstrating guaraná's cognition enhancing properties and provides evidence that its addition to a multi-vitamin-mineral supplement can improve cognitive performance and reduce the mental fatigue associated with sustained mental effort." [D O Kennedy et al., Improved cognitive performance and mental fatigue following a multi-vitamin and mineral supplement with added guaraná (Paullinia cupana), Appetite (2008) Volume: 50, Issue: 2-3, Pages: 506-513 ]

Cascara Sagrada
Study #1

Cortex Rhamni Purshianae [Cascara Sagrada]

"Cortex Rhamni Purshianae consists of the dried bark of Rhamnus purshiana D.C. (Rhamnaceae) (1–5). Cascara (2) and Cascara Sagrada (5) are also official names of the drug. . . . The fresh bark contains free anthrones and must be dried for at least 1 year or artificially aged by heat or aeration before therapeutic use (1, 5, 8). . . . The mechanism of action, similar to that of senna, is twofold. Firstly, there is stimulation of colonic motility, resulting in increased propulsion and accelerated transit of faeces through the colon (which reduces fluid absorption from the faecal mass). Secondly, there is an increase in paracellular permeability across the colonic mucosa, probably due to inhibition of sodium/potassium-transporting adenosine triphosphatase or inhibition of chloride channels (23, 26). The increased permeability results in increased water content in the colon (21, 26)." [Word Health Organization, Cortex Rhamni Purshianae, WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants - Volume 2:259-268, at http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/en/d/Js4927e/25.html, July 25 2007.]


Study #2

Cascara Sagrada Fact Sheet

"Cascara sagrada has a long history of traditional use by Native Americans. Cascara sagrada contains compounds called anthroquinones, which are responsible for cascara's powerful laxative effects. Anthraquinones trigger contractions in the colon, called peristalsis, which causes the urge to have a bowel movement. Today, it is one of the most common herbal laxatives. In addition to being a powerful laxative, cascara is also believed to improve the muscle tone of the colon walls." [Cathy Wong, Cascara Sagrada Fact Sheet, Alternative Medicine, at http://altmedicine.about.com/od/completeazindex/a/cascara.htm, July 2, 2011]


Study #3

Cascara Sagrada, Nature's Gentle Answer to Constipation

"In comparing the group who took Cascara to placebo control groups, Cascara demonstrated that it was effective, had good biological tolerance, promoted faster gastro-intestinal transit time and when supplemented with inositol and cianocobalamine, the herb caused marked increases in levels of vitamin B-12.7" [Nutraceutical, Cascara Sagrada, Nature's Gentle Answer to Constipation, Woodland Publishing (1995), at www.nutracorp.com/educate/pdf/cascara.pdf.]

Ginger Root
Study #1

Ginger & Marianne Investigation of the effect of ginger on the lipid levels. A double blind controlled clinical trial

"Results: Forty-five patients in the treatment group and 40 patients in placebo group participated in this study. There was a significant reduce in triglyceride cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), levels of before and after study separately in each group (p0.05). Mean changes in triglyceride and cholesterol levels of ginger group were significantly higher than placebo group (p0.05). Mean reduction in LDL level and increase in high density lipoprotein level of ginger group were higher than the placebo group, but in VLDL level of placebo was higher than ginger(p0.05). Conclusion: The results show that ginger has a significant lipid lowering effect compared to placebo." [Reza Alizadeh-Navaei et al., Investigation of the effect of ginger on the lipid levels. A double blind controlled clinical trial, Saudi Med J 29(9):1280-1284 (2008). ]


Study #2

Effects of ginger supplementation and resistance training on lipid profiles and body composition in obese men

"For centuries ginger has been an important ingredient in Chinese, Ayurvedic and Tibb-Unani herbal medicine (Badreldin et al., 2008). Ginger modifies lipid metabolism by inhibiting cellular cholesterol biosynthesis, increasing bile acid biosynthesis to eliminate cholesterol from the body and increasing fecal cholesterol excretion (Matsuda et al., 2009)." [Sirvan Atashak, Effects of ginger supplementation and resistance training on lipid profiles and body composition in obese men, Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 5(16), pp. 3827-3832, 18 August, 2011.]


Study #3

Ginger: A potent root

"Ginger preparation, Trikatu, was a potent hypo-lipidemic agent because of its ability to reduce triglycerides and LDL cholesterol and to increase HDL. . . . Ginger has been used in eastern medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal ailments. The combined treatment of antibiotics and ginger were tested for the control and treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections. The treatment was effective and was shown to inhibit H. pylori with synergistic or additive activity." [Heli J. Roy PhD RD et al., Ginger: A potent root, Pennington Nutrition Series 6 (2007) at http://www.pbrc.edu/division-of-education/pdf/pns/PNS_Ginger.pdf]


Study #4

Ginger: Its role in xenobiotic metabolism

"Ginger has been used extensively in folklore medicine to treat common ailments. Now scientific evidences in favour of some of these beneficial properties are emerging which would support their consumption and use to ameliorate certain disorders. Observations from studies on animals suggest that ginger has the ability to stimulate protective enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism." [Kalpagam Polasa and K. Nirmala, Ginger: Its role in xenobiotic metabolism, Indian Council of Medical Research Bulletin, June 2003, 33(6):57-63.]


Study #5

Some phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): A review of recent research

"It has been reported that treatment with a methanolic extract of dried rhizomes of ginger produced a significant reduction in fructose-induced elevation of lipid levels, bodyweight, hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. Treatment with an ethyl acetate extract of ginger did not produce any significant change in either of the last two parameters. However, it produced a significant reduction in elevated lipid levels and body weight." [Badreldin H. Ali et al., Some phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): A review of recent research, Food and Chemical Toxicology 46 (2008) 409–420.]

Reishi Mushroom
Study #1

Reishi Mushroom Ling Zhi (Ganoderma) (Reishi)

"Hyperlipidemia: In one study, 120 patients with high cholesterol levels were treated with 4 to 6 ml of Ling Zhi syrup two to three times daily for 1 to 3 months with 86% rate of effectiveness." [John Chen and Tina Chen, Ling Zhi (Ganoderma), Chinese Medical Herbology and Pharmacology, Ch. 14 Sec. 2:770-771: (2004).]


Study #2

Red Reishi: How an ancient herbal treasure can benefit your health today

"Obesity can affect one's self confidence and have a negative impact on one's self-image. In addition, it can lead to diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Studies have found that regular consumption of red Reishi helps the body cleanse itself of accumulated toxins and excess lipids (fat)." [Shu Sing Wong, Red Reishi: How an ancient herbal treasure can benefit your health today, World Health Publishing, at http://www.purelingzhi.com/images/red_reishi_en.pdf, August 29, 2011.]


Study #3

The Sacred Mushroom "Reishi"--A Review

"It is rarely found since it flourishes mainly on the dried trunks of dead plum, Guercus serrata or pasonia trees. Out of 10,000 such aged trees, perhaps 2 or 3 will have Reishi growth, therefore it is very scarce indeed. The status of Reishi in the health food industry is unparalleled. It is the culmination of the knowledge and wisdom of the East and West for 5,000 years. Its effectiveness as a health food and as a highly potent medicine have been demonstrated by over 30 years of modern scientific research all over the world. . . Ganoderma lucidum contains high concentration of Organic Germanium, Polysaccharides and Triterpenes. These active components are proven to strengthen our immunity cells and improve our immune system." [P. Dinesh Babu and R.S. Subhasree, The Sacred Mushroom "Reishi"--A Review, American-Eurasian Journal of Botany, 1(3):107-110 (2008).]

B6 & B12
Study #1

Effects of multivitamin and mineral supplementation on adiposity, energy expenditure and lipid profiles in obese Chinese women

"Obese individuals are more likely to have either lower blood concentrations or lower bioavailability of minerals and/or vitamins. However, there are limited data on the effects of nutritional supplementation on body weight (BW) control, energy homeostasis and lipid metabolism in obese subjects. . . . A total of 87 subjects completed the study. After 26 weeks, compared with the placebo group, the MMS group had significantly lower BW, BMI, FM, TC and LDL-C, significantly higher REE and HDL-C, as well as a borderline significant trend of lower RQ (P=0.053) and WC (P=0.071)." [Y Li et al., Effects of multivitamin and mineral supplementation on adiposity, energy expenditure and lipid profiles in obese Chinese women, International Journal of Obesity 34:1070-1077 (June 2010).]


Study #2

Vitamin B12 Supplementation of the Diet of Healthy Adults

"Weight gain is probably due to appetite stimulation, although this may not account for the entire effect. It has been hypothesized that vitamin B12 plays a role in the transformation of carbohydrate to fat. . . . Vitamin B12 might influence appetite in a favorable direction either by relieving a deficiency state or by exerting a pharmacologic effect upon the utilization of ingested food." [Gilbert M. Bane MD and William P. Boger MD, Vitamin B12 Supplementation of the Diet of Healthy Adults, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, September-October 1953, Vol 1(6):424-429.]